About Terracotta Warriors

The Terra-cotta Warriors and Horses
Terracotta Warriors and Horses are goods buried in Qin Shi Huang Mausoleum. Tome figures are goods buried in ancient grave. Terracotta Warriors and horses are tomb figures with the shape of warriors and horses.
The pit of terracotta warriors is located in Lintong district, Xi’an. It is a part of the pits in Qin Shi Huang Mausoleum. There are a large number of terracotta warriors and horses in the three pits that have founded.
In 1987, Qin Shi Huang Mausoleum was listed in World Heritage. There are more than 200 nation leaders who have visited the scenic spot. It is one of the greatest discoveries in archaeological history.

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Historical records
According to Shiji, Qin Shi Huang came to throne at the age of 13 when Li Si began to design and build the grave. When he grew up, he began to expand the scale of construction until two years after his death. His son finished constructing hastily and the process had lasted 39 years.

The process of discovery
On March, 1974, a villager found large-scale pit when he dug well. Then, terracotta warriors and horses were found. In 1975, the museum was built on the site of the original pit. On October 1, 1979, Terracotta Warriors Museum began to open to domestic and foreign visitors. On June 13, 2009, more colored warriors were dug out in the first pit, but were soon oxidized.
Terracotta Warriors and Horses is one of the greatest archaeological discoveries in the history and 4 pits have been found until now.

Terracotta Warriors and Horses

Terracotta Warriors and Horses is world’s largest underground military museum. The pit is 5 meters in depth, with a rational layout and peculiar structure. The distance between load-bearing walls is 3 meters and terracotta warriors and horses align east to west over the gap. There are three terracotta pits inside the grave, arranging in a triangle. The shape of the first pit is a rectangular, 230 meters from east to west, 62 meters from north to south, five meters in depth, with a total area of 14,260 square meters. The average height of the warriors is about 1.80 meters and the highest one is above 1.90 meters. The horses are 1.72 meters tall and 2.03 meters long. The size of the pottery chariots is the same as the real ones. The size of the Terracotta Army is not the same as that of Qin citizens. According to records, the height of Qin citizens is about 165 cm. Most terracotta warriors hold bronze weapons such as bows, crossbows, arrowheads, beryllium, spears, sword, machete and ax. Bronze weapons are processed, so they are anti-rust. As a result, although they have buried under the ground for two thousand years, they are still bright and sharp as new ones. The warriors wear fine armor, with colored line to their chest. The face, body, expression, eyebrows, eyes, and age of the warriors are different. That is because the armies are from different places. Its artistic achievement achieves a perfect extent. It is not a mechanical imitation, but with spirit.
And new kinds of bronze weapon are founded. The standardized process and anti-corrosion treatment tell people more about the ancient science and technology. Moreover, its huge army system gives a feeling of grandeur. There are 8000 people in the army. Thousands of armed warriors and hundreds of dragging horses arrange into a grand and magnificent lineup. Some pull hair up into updo, wear tabard and short boots, with bows and crossbows in their hands and they seem fighting warriors. Some are without helmet but with armor, bows and copper arrowhead and they seem wit and shooting archers. Some wear a soft cap and armor, with Long beryllium in their hands and they seem soldiers in fighting. Moreover, there are knights, subordinate commanders and generals. The images of those thousands of officers and soldiers are vivid, natural and lively, especially in expression and personality. The officers are tall and grave. The soldiers are different. Some are with anger, some are witty, some are pure, some are graceful and some are thoughtful. For the same expression of thoughtfulness, there are differences between the two. For example, the former is proud, while the latter is calm.
The theme of the Terracotta figures is about ancient military. It is neither about war statue, nor defending condition, but an orderly static army camp. In the sculpture of single warrior, artists try to reach the extent between movement and stillness. Their expression shows that they are prepared to fight. The vivid and still army group shows an unexpected artistic effect, that is,  “moving in stillness”. The still army gives a huge deterrent, which is unprecedented and unparalleled.
Terracotta Warriors and Horses is a part of the mausoleum. It is located 1,500 meters east of the cemetery. Terracotta Warriors and Horses extends west to east, arranging in a triangle. Its total area is 19,120 square meters, equal to 50 basketball courts. There are more than 8000 figures in the pit. The first pit is the one which was found firstly, also it is the largest. It is 230 meters from east to west, 62 meters from north to south, with a total area of 14,260 square meters. The second and the third one is on its left and right side respectively.

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Pit Introduction
The First Pit
The first pit was discovered on March 1974. It is the biggest one, with 210 warriors in the east. The rest 204 is in the rear, forming an army group.
In the middle of the pit, there are 38 columns of tanks and infantry, forming the main part of the army. The large military array has elite striker, strong main part, flexible wing, with overwhelming momentum.

The Second Pit
The first pit is discovered by a villager, while the second one is discovered by archaeologists in 1976.
The second pit is L-shaped. It is located on the north-east side of the first pit and the east side of the third pit. It is 96 meters from east to west, 84 meters from north to south, with a total area of about 6,000 square meters. Its layout is the same as the first pit, but the lineup is more complex. It has more arms and it is more spectacular. The army group is composed of multi-forces such as chariot, cavalry and infantry (including crossbow). The second pit has its exhibition hall, covering 17,000 square meters. It is China’s largest modern exhibition hall. There are 1,300 pottery horses, 80 chariots, tens of thousands of bronze weapons, in which officer warriors, horses, and kneeling warriors were first discovered. There are four slope doorways on the east and west side respectively, and there are two slope doorways on the north side, with the main entrance on the east.
There are four parts in the pit. The first part is at the eastern end of the pit, with 60 warriors in surrounding gallery and 160 kneeling warriors in the center. The second part is on the right side of the pit, with 64 chariots. There are eight columns, with 8 chariots in each column. There are 4 horses before each chariot with the size of the real one. Three warriors stand behind, with the middle one controlling and the left and the right ones standing, weapons in their hands. The third part is in the middle, with three lines, 264 warriors and 8 riding warriors. There stands one warrior before every horse, one hand pulling the horse and the other with the shape of drawing the bow. Besides the 3 warriors, there are 8 to 36 more behind the horse. The fourth part is on the left side of the army group, 108 knights and 180 pottery warriors arranging into 11 columns. There are 6 chariots in the first and the third column. There stands one warrior before every horse, one hand pulling the horse and the other with the shape of drawing the bow. The 108 riding warriors are so valuable for research. They are the exact imitation of ancient cavalry in fighting statues. They wear round caps, short dress and simple armor. Their attire is in close relation with the tactic of the cavalry.
This kind of bronze chariots unearthed give people a new impression. Its complex process and sophisticated production surprise the whole world. The bronze chariot is with tent, 78cm wide and 88cm deep in the carriage. It is 4cm wider than the chariots referred before, but it is 40cm deeper than it. The carriage is enclosed, even the steering place is covered, so the people inside can talk directly with the groom. People inside can sit or lie down to have a rest. It equals to soft sleeper and people can enjoy their journey in it with ease. The interior equipment is more distinctive. The cushion inside the carriage is beautiful and painted. Archaeologists have found a square copper plate at the bottom of the carriage, whose size is almost the same as the bottom of the carriage. Its surface is painted with all kinds of colorful geometric patterns, with eight 3 cm long copper nails at the corners and central part for support. This is undoubtedly the ancient soft mat products. If there are two in the carriage, the vehicle will be more stable and comfortable. It can be said to be China’s first “sleeper car”. Archaeologists have discovered that the bronze chariot has a total of 3462 parts, of which 1742 are bronze pieces, 737 are gold ones and 983 are silver ones. Its total weight is 1241kg, of which gold castings are more than 3 kg, silver castings are more than 4 kg. The number of casting parts of the first kind is nearly the same. There are more than 5000 parts for the two kinds of chariots and the parts are all casted. Whether it is canopy cover, copper horse or warrior as large as 2 square meters, or little tubes as small as 0.2 square meters, they are finished in one cast. Take canopy cover for example, it is large and its thickness varies. It can be 0.4 cm thick or 0.1 cm thin and it has curvature on the top. It is difficult to finish in one cast today, not to mention the Qin Dynasty 2,200 years ago. The casting of bronze horses and warriors are also difficult for contemporary engineers. They are perfect in expression, personality and temperament, and they can compare with the best officer warriors. It is rare in bronze horse and warrior casting. For example, the copper bridle is connected with 82 small gold tubes and 78 small silver tubes, with each only 0.8cm. It can be compared to modern bracelet. The most surprising object is Ying Luo, hanging on the neck of the horse and made of hair-thin copper wire. Under the magnifier, the copper wire is with uniform thickness and without the trace of forging. It remains a secret how the thin copper wire (0.5 mm)can be made and joined into a circle.
All in all, it is a miracle in making such perfect artifacts with bronze in a period without modern equipments. Moreover, it gives us the first hand information of the bowing warriors, chariot warriors and riding warriors 2,200 years ago and it is of significant meaning in ancient military research.

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The Third Pit
The third pit was discovered by experts in 1976 and stands in the west of the first pit. It is 25 meters from the first pit and 120 meters from the second pit, covering an area of 520 square meters in the shape of a gib. There are 68 warriors in the pit and it is the command pit. This pit is not burned as the first two pits, so the terracotta is more colorful in the pit.
The third pit is the earliest military command ever found in the history of archaeology. Its structure, arrangement and weapons are all distinctive. It provides information for the studying of military headquarters.

The Fourth Pit
The fourth pit is an empty pit with no terracotta objects. It is not completed maybe because of peasant uprising.